[{"label":"Home","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en"},{"label":"Staff","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/staff--equipe","section":{"id":1,"title_en":"About","title_fr":"\u00c0 propos"}},{"label":"Krista Duncan","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/staff--equipe\/krista-duncan","section":{"id":1,"title_en":"About","title_fr":"\u00c0 propos"}}]

Krista Duncan is an Economist with the OPBO. Krista completed a Master’s degree in economics and an Undergraduate degree in economics and environmental management at the University of Toronto.

Prior to joining the OPBO, Krista worked as a research assistant in the economics department at the University of Toronto.

Latest publications

    {"id":"RP-2122-032-S","is_published":"2022-03-24T13:00:01.000000Z","release_date":"2022-03-24T13:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2022-03-24T13:00:01.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2122-032-S","title_en":"A Distributional Analysis of Federal Carbon Pricing under A Healthy Environment and A Healthy Economy","title_fr":"Une analyse distributive de la tarification f\u00e9d\u00e9rale du carbone dans le cadre du plan \u00ab Un environnement sain et une \u00e9conomie saine \u00bb","slug":"RP-2122-032-S--distributional-analysis-federal-carbon-pricing-under-healthy-environment-healthy-economy--une-analyse-distributive-tarification-federale-carbone-dans-cadre-plan-un-environnement-sain-une-eco","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-032-S--distributional-analysis-federal-carbon-pricing-under-healthy-environment-healthy-economy--une-analyse-distributive-tarification-federale-carbone-dans-cadre-plan-un-environnement-sain-une-eco","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-032-S--distributional-analysis-federal-carbon-pricing-under-healthy-environment-healthy-economy--une-analyse-distributive-tarification-federale-carbone-dans-cadre-plan-un-environnement-sain-une-eco"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-032-S--distributional-analysis-federal-carbon-pricing-under-healthy-environment-healthy-economy--une-analyse-distributive-tarification-federale-carbone-dans-cadre-plan-un-environnement-sain-une-eco","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-032-S--distributional-analysis-federal-carbon-pricing-under-healthy-environment-healthy-economy--une-analyse-distributive-tarification-federale-carbone-dans-cadre-plan-un-environnement-sain-une-eco"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/6399abff7887b53208a1e97cfb397801ea9f4e729c15dfb85998d1eb359ea5c7"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/4dee5e1a1e2c2e1b08a83cb76568cdcae2f520ca0c2a5fb9ffc1ef0f9e1b0efc"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8db8f49ad11c1e52c66a5835d50d52e5c8d259cee64c7d0a772800d4f4059f55","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ab7349515c1227f20760be771d4b6104e941c17bb435e8a321c0098364f3aaf5","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fa43c75b696587fed0e7db15b8989918616612d6b6d1f086a63a6581e1559427","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8ffa5503b879f25badafaf40d3a8aa19c860ded3603b6cbc74b97941b7faba63","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4c8601a6ee7523923cc76dad0757aec9313fb9d844ffac91735ffda310f77e39","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f4d92277baa5464feccfe18c516285593c2e8b93fa82812712ff80dce3e71c57","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7dda017c4fc10410b761d9d374d8d2b42e006b4f50cd9fa5513315a94b338723","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ce85235453c99e367089e8600e03f34c0d8135fd891d664a2a8ea60053f41b62"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f76062665173fea78678d58a9c902ec1141ed546aeca70e9c7b21a4b075e7c9b","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1e183ff6c1a06d40cf7b2aec1a92c71bac3be82bc91a781a92f0387c501d60a7","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fdd583ccf32d83aaa4af73d537c6b394953df21c182e7c0c4ca3dbb2958a719d","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/78de16a86f06487fd72b5d00b68ecaab42f139ff14efde795d9a8ff80f197d41","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/499ee1da44201b305266118cc3f2206878d49b5755086efa1e27f1f9dc8d9c84","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e3e6a3b18c1e209c29c6aa2f21f75377f7b56435045660ca38919b5614153ddf","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3bc84094812e4fcf174d22e9d306a578ef8b450b98f79640566ee053e5fe5e4f","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/df7dae0058f06c2aa6988615b11c583a051e96aca003f84933097b1256c8f12f"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report provides a distributional analysis of federal carbon pricing under the Government\u2019s A Healthy Environment and A Healthy Economy plan.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport fournit une analyse distributive de la tarification f\u00e9d\u00e9rale du carbone dans le cadre du plan du gouvernement intitul\u00e9 \u00ab Un environnement sain et une \u00e9conomie saine \u00bb.","highlights":[{"content":{"en":"Under the Government\u2019s A Healthy Environment and A Healthy Economy (HEHE) climate plan, the federal carbon levy is set to rise by $15 per year from $50 per tonne in 2022 until it reaches $170 per tonne in 2030.","fr":"Dans le cadre du plan climatique du gouvernement intitul\u00e9 Un environnement sain et une \u00e9conomie saine (plan climatique), la taxe f\u00e9d\u00e9rale sur le carbone devrait augmenter de 15 dollars par ann\u00e9e, passant de 50 dollars par tonne en 2022 \u00e0 170 dollars par tonne en 2030."}},{"content":{"en":"When losses in economic efficiency are added to fiscal impacts of federal carbon pricing, the net carbon cost increases for all households in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.","fr":"Lorsque les pertes d\u2019efficacit\u00e9 \u00e9conomique sont ajout\u00e9es aux incidences fiscales de la tarification f\u00e9d\u00e9rale du carbone, le co\u00fbt net du carbone augmente pour tous les m\u00e9nages de l\u2019Ontario, du Manitoba, de la Saskatchewan et de l\u2019Alberta."}},{"content":{"en":"Most households in provinces under the backstop will see a net loss resulting from federal carbon pricing under the HEHE plan. That is, household carbon costs will exceed the Climate Action Incentive payments households receive.","fr":"La plupart des m\u00e9nages des provinces o\u00f9 le filet de s\u00e9curit\u00e9 s\u2019applique subiront une perte nette r\u00e9sultant de la tarification f\u00e9d\u00e9rale du carbone dans le cadre du plan climatique. C\u2019est-\u00e0-dire que le co\u00fbt du carbone pour les m\u00e9nages sera sup\u00e9rieur aux paiements de l\u2019incitatif \u00e0 agir pour le climat que les m\u00e9nages re\u00e7oivent."}},{"content":{"en":"Relative to disposable income, our estimates of household net carbon costs continue to show a progressive impact that is, larger net costs for higher income households.","fr":"En ce qui concerne le revenu disponible, nos estimations des co\u00fbts nets du carbone pour les m\u00e9nages continuent de montrer une incidence progressive, c\u2019est-\u00e0-dire des co\u00fbts nets plus importants pour les m\u00e9nages \u00e0 revenu \u00e9lev\u00e9."}},{"content":{"en":"We estimate that carbon pricing under HEHE will reduce the budgetary balance (increase the budgetary deficit) by $0.9 billion in 2021-22 and ultimately by $5.2 billion in 2030-31.","fr":"Nous estimons que la tarification du carbone dans le cadre du plan Un environnement sain et une \u00e9conomie saine r\u00e9duira le solde budg\u00e9taire (augmentera le d\u00e9ficit budg\u00e9taire) de 0,9 milliard de dollars en 2021-2022 et, \u00e0 terme, de 5,2 milliards de dollars en 2030-2031."}}]},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122032S,\n author={Ammar, Nasreddine and Bagnoli, Philip and Duncan, Krista and Scholz, Tim},\n title={A Distributional Analysis of Federal Carbon Pricing under A Healthy Environment and A Healthy Economy},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122032S,\n author={Ammar, Nasreddine and Bagnoli, Philip and Duncan, Krista and Scholz, Tim},\n title={Une analyse distributive de la tarification f\\\u0027{e}d\\\u0027{e}rale du carbone dans le cadre du plan \u00ab Un environnement sain et une \\\u0027{e}conomie saine \u00bb},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2122-030-S","is_published":"2022-03-01T14:00:03.000000Z","release_date":"2022-03-01T14:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2022-03-01T14:00:03.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2122-030-S","title_en":"Economic and Fiscal Outlook \u2013 March 2022","title_fr":"Perspectives \u00e9conomiques et financi\u00e8res \u2013 Mars 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report provides a baseline projection to help parliamentarians gauge potential economic and fiscal outcomes under current policy settings.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport pr\u00e9sente des pr\u00e9visions de r\u00e9f\u00e9rence pour aider les parlementaires \u00e0 \u00e9valuer les r\u00e9sultats \u00e9conomiques et budg\u00e9taires possibles en vertu des cadres d\u2019action actuels.","highlights":[{"content":{"en":"PBO projects growth in the Canadian economy to rebound sharply in the second quarter and remain robust in the second half of 2022 as the reopening of the economy continues.","fr":"Le DPB pr\u00e9voit que la croissance de l\u2019\u00e9conomie canadienne reprendra nettement au cours du deuxi\u00e8me trimestre et qu\u2019elle demeurera solide durant la deuxi\u00e8me moiti\u00e9 de 2022 alors que se poursuit la r\u00e9ouverture progressive de l\u2019\u00e9conomie."}},{"content":{"en":"Based on our outlook for inflation and the output gap, PBO projects that the Bank of Canada will increase its policy interest rate by a cumulative 75 basis points, lifting its rate to 1.00 per cent by the end of 2022.","fr":"En s\u2019appuyant sur ses perspectives concernant l\u2019inflation et l\u2019\u00e9cart de production, le DPB pr\u00e9voit que la Banque du Canada va augmenter son taux directeur de 75 points de base cumulatifs, relevant le taux \u00e0 1 % d\u2019ici la fin de 2022."}},{"content":{"en":"PBO projects a budget deficit of $139.8 billion (5.6 per cent of GDP) in 2021-22 and $47.9 billion (1.8 per cent of GDP) in 2022-23. We project the federal debt-to-GDP ratio to peak at 47.7 per cent in 2021-22 and then gradually decline over the medium term to 42.3 per cent.","fr":"Le DPB pr\u00e9voit un d\u00e9ficit budg\u00e9taire de 139,8 milliards de dollars en 2021-2022 (5,6 % du PIB) et de 47,9 milliards de dollars en 2022-2023, soit 1,8 % du PIB. Le ratio de la dette f\u00e9d\u00e9rale au PIB devrait atteindre un sommet \u00e0 47,7 % du PIB en 2021-2022 avant de revenir progressivement \u00e0 moyen terme \u00e0 42,3 %."}},{"content":{"en":"Due to low interest rates, the cost of servicing the federal debt reached its lowest recorded level in 2020-21 of 7.2 per cent of tax revenues. While interest rates are projected to rise, the debt service ratio will remain low, reaching 11.5 per cent of tax revenues over the medium term.","fr":"\u00c9tant donn\u00e9 les faibles taux d\u2019int\u00e9r\u00eat, le co\u00fbt de service de la dette f\u00e9d\u00e9rale a atteint son niveau le plus bas enregistr\u00e9 en 2020-2021, \u00e0 7,2 % des recettes fiscales. Malgr\u00e9 la hausse anticip\u00e9e des taux d\u2019int\u00e9r\u00eat, le ratio du service de la dette du gouvernement demeurera bas, atteignant 11,5 % des recettes fiscales \u00e0 moyen terme."}}]},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122030S,\n author={Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Stanton, Jason and Ammar, Nasreddine and Behrend, Robert and Cl\\\u0027{e}ophat, R\\\u0027{e}gine and Creighton, Mark and Duncan, Krista and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and MacPhee, Sarah and Michalyshyn, Katarina and Segel-Brown, Ben and Sourang, Diarra and Vanderwees, Kaitlyn},\n title={Economic and Fiscal Outlook - March 2022},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122030S,\n author={Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Stanton, Jason and Ammar, Nasreddine and Behrend, Robert and Cl\\\u0027{e}ophat, R\\\u0027{e}gine and Creighton, Mark and Duncan, Krista and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and MacPhee, Sarah and Michalyshyn, Katarina and Segel-Brown, Ben and Sourang, Diarra and Vanderwees, Kaitlyn},\n title={Perspectives \\\u0027{e}conomiques et financi\\`{e}res - Mars 2022},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2122-023-M","is_published":"2021-12-09T14:00:09.000000Z","release_date":"2021-12-09T14:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-12-09T14:00:09.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2122-023-M","title_en":"Estimating the top tail of the family wealth distribution in Canada: updates and trends","title_fr":"Estimation de l\u2019extr\u00e9mit\u00e9 sup\u00e9rieure de la distribution du patrimoine familial au Canada : mises \u00e0 jour et tendances","slug":"RP-2122-023-M--estimating-top-tail-family-wealth-distribution-in-canada-updates-trends--estimation-extremite-superieure-distribution-patrimoine-familial-canada-mises-jour-tendances","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-023-M--estimating-top-tail-family-wealth-distribution-in-canada-updates-trends--estimation-extremite-superieure-distribution-patrimoine-familial-canada-mises-jour-tendances","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-023-M--estimating-top-tail-family-wealth-distribution-in-canada-updates-trends--estimation-extremite-superieure-distribution-patrimoine-familial-canada-mises-jour-tendances"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-023-M--estimating-top-tail-family-wealth-distribution-in-canada-updates-trends--estimation-extremite-superieure-distribution-patrimoine-familial-canada-mises-jour-tendances","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-023-M--estimating-top-tail-family-wealth-distribution-in-canada-updates-trends--estimation-extremite-superieure-distribution-patrimoine-familial-canada-mises-jour-tendances"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/20de98fc3f4d93c5213f8d71fbe7cd89ae69cb1899e9cbf2d3ca4d57f18ab25a"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/667a47992cc270630593920b2e17acd4ae1d5f5852884b325b009e0f68d9f6de"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/c5de4d5c97faf8c86f793c0f4dcea205f5c185007f3741c22e501330dc537a31","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/013824220323d805a2151e5e26421016e409976ea8f204d902656417210774ed","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6fe228e78fa93bd774328cb77b9463ea7bb35fd6fb2413082b2534ea3dc4ae9b","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1034e67ad61c598c18eed805550233abcef5f75365db6f0113d79989638000d2","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4aa5a6643fb318d71ac30ae71c33b4f6d0a6abb6945b1ded07cf01de00efd304","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/57cdfd96cb906c9d2ccda7f80bbe4efd48fbaf4caeef3d27ad8c3d11bc0124ae","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/5a0f499e46b880a07623570e6ee6adbdfa329180fad27301b27905a284972db6","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/90ae5a074b6078873212499aad0cb951064e6ed33ffdc82204f53122e4100a4e"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3b61e0e41b252462facc699fc2397f9d3136650489518a2393030024422ca773","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6b7045281723bd65f6446c68869700d45b7fc34beb1a3134690f4ea525295580","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6b9d8790c2471fba901e544988ba48e3702b4eef22bd608f2ee0fea47bd4b50e","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e735f362cc2d8cc964338dedafe1eff22e2ec5d6138f35244f06ca8e04d6a79a","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/c2acedad33db282dd8a1dc68cc7dc69bc30ebd6e19d996c4b059866f9643b529","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6aaf40f2f0aed27c68141873bd6a31fe5a980b695ce2a3d4f4ff2e56b2d3481b","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6336a316ffe9b292d69900bf1f977ad1efb13069f825c81b0c389c55be0e0e92","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/96940320de083be7c7260146056eaa58671f6454d022dd4effe3690118c3ce0c"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"Senator Rosa Galvez requested that the PBO update the High-net-worth Family Database for the year 2019 and that the same methodology be applied to previous years in order to study the trends in the distribution of Canadian net wealth. PBO applies a modelling approach from a past report to estimate the top tail of the family wealth distribution in Canada for the year 2019. The approach is also applied to the years 1999, 2012, and 2016 in order to study the trends in wealth held by the wealthiest families in Canada. This report provides the details of the update and the results.","abstract_fr":"La s\u00e9natrice Rosa Galvez a demand\u00e9 que le DPB mette \u00e0 jour la Base de donn\u00e9es sur les familles \u00e0 valeur nette \u00e9lev\u00e9e pour l\u0027ann\u00e9e 2019 et que la m\u00eame m\u00e9thodologie soit appliqu\u00e9e aux ann\u00e9es pr\u00e9c\u00e9dentes afin d\u0027\u00e9tudier les tendances de la distribution de la richesse nette canadienne. Le DPB applique une approche de mod\u00e9lisation d\u0027un rapport ant\u00e9rieur pour estimer l\u2019extr\u00e9mit\u00e9 sup\u00e9rieure de la distribution de la richesse familiale au Canada pour l\u0027ann\u00e9e 2019. L\u0027approche est \u00e9galement appliqu\u00e9e aux ann\u00e9es 1999, 2012 et 2016 afin d\u0027\u00e9tudier les tendances de la richesse d\u00e9tenue par les familles les plus riches au Canada. Ce rapport fournit les d\u00e9tails de la mise \u00e0 jour et les r\u00e9sultats.","highlights":[{"content":{"en":"PBO finds that the top one percent\u2019s share of family net wealth in Canada has increased by approximately 5 percentage points over the period of 1999-2019.","fr":"Pour la p\u00e9riode 1999-2019, le DPB constate une hausse d\u2019environ 5 points de pourcentage de la part de la richesse nette des familles au Canada d\u00e9tenue par les 1 % les plus fortun\u00e9s."}},{"content":{"en":"In PBO\u2019s update of the High-net-worth Family Database using the 2019 Survey of Financial Security public use microdata file, PBO finds that the top one percent\u2019s share of family net wealth in Canada is 24.8 per cent whereas the bottom 40 per cent of families own 1.1% of total wealth in 2019.","fr":"Dans le cadre de cette mise \u00e0 jour de la base de donn\u00e9es sur les familles \u00e0 valeur nette \u00e9lev\u00e9e, le DPB a utilis\u00e9 le fichier de microdonn\u00e9es \u00e0 usage public de l\u2019Enqu\u00eate sur la s\u00e9curit\u00e9 financi\u00e8re de 2019. Il a constat\u00e9 qu\u2019en 2019, la part de la richesse nette des familles du premier centile au Canada \u00e9tait de 24,8 %, tandis que celle des familles du quaranti\u00e8me centile inf\u00e9rieur repr\u00e9sentait 1,1 % de la richesse totale."}},{"content":{"en":"PBO also finds that there were approximately 160,600 families in the top one percent in 2019, and they each had a net wealth of at least $6.3 million.","fr":"Le DPB constate \u00e9galement qu\u2019il y avait environ 160\u2009600 familles dans le premier centile en 2019, et qu\u2019elles avaient chacune une richesse nette d\u2019au moins 6,3 millions de dollars."}},{"content":{"en":"There were approximately 78,400 families with more than $10 million in net wealth and their share of family net wealth was about 19.3 per cent in 2019.","fr":"Environ 78\u2009400 familles avaient une richesse nette de plus de 10 millions de dollars, et leur part de la richesse nette familiale \u00e9tait d\u2019environ 19,3 pour cent en 2019."}},{"content":{"en":"PBO projects that, in the second quarter of 2021, there was approximately 161,700 families in the top one percent, and they each had a net wealth of at least $7.3 million.","fr":"Le DPB estime qu\u2019au deuxi\u00e8me trimestre de 2021, il y avait environ 161\u2009700 familles dans le centile sup\u00e9rieur et qu\u2019elles avaient chacune une richesse nette d\u2019au moins 7,3 millions de dollars."}}]},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122023M,\n author={Duncan, Krista and Perrault, Louis},\n title={Estimating the top tail of the family wealth distribution in Canada: updates and trends},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122023M,\n author={Duncan, Krista and Perrault, Louis},\n title={Estimation de l\u2019extr\\\u0027{e}mit\\\u0027{e} sup\\\u0027{e}rieure de la distribution du patrimoine familial au Canada : mises \\`{a} jour et tendances},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}}