[{"label":"Home","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en"},{"label":"Staff","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/staff--equipe","section":{"id":1,"title_en":"About","title_fr":"\u00c0 propos"}},{"label":"Rapha\u00ebl Liberge-Simard","url":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/staff--equipe\/raphael-liberge-simard","section":{"id":1,"title_en":"About","title_fr":"\u00c0 propos"}}]
Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes.

Raphaël Liberge-Simard

Analyst

Raphaël Liberge-Simard is an Economist at the Office of Parliamentary Budget Officer.

Prior to joining the team, he worked as a Teaching Assistant at HEC Montréal and as a Research Assistant at the Bank of Canada’s International Economic Analysis Department.

Raphaël has a Master’s degree in applied economics from HEC Montréal and a joint Bachelor’s degree in economics and mathematics from Laval University.

Latest publications

    {"id":"RP-2122-029-S","is_published":"2022-02-17T14:00:09.000000Z","release_date":"2022-02-17T14:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2022-02-17T14:00:09.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2122-029-S","title_en":"House Price Assessment: A Borrowing Capacity Perspective","title_fr":"\u00c9valuation du prix des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s \u2013 Un portrait de la capacit\u00e9 d\u2019emprunt","slug":"RP-2122-029-S--house-price-assessment-borrowing-capacity-perspective--evaluation-prix-proprietes-un-portrait-capacite-emprunt","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-029-S--house-price-assessment-borrowing-capacity-perspective--evaluation-prix-proprietes-un-portrait-capacite-emprunt","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-029-S--house-price-assessment-borrowing-capacity-perspective--evaluation-prix-proprietes-un-portrait-capacite-emprunt"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-029-S--house-price-assessment-borrowing-capacity-perspective--evaluation-prix-proprietes-un-portrait-capacite-emprunt","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-029-S--house-price-assessment-borrowing-capacity-perspective--evaluation-prix-proprietes-un-portrait-capacite-emprunt"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/785783963a71613e7b560358ac7043a18300b26e53fffc2469543c1f13299989"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/dcc780f1a5a243d75d75d39335c535cb10029a023af33f3502ab87628fa01063"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/5df06b2e6fd0bc96d6c3ba72ac6efe98baf0a8dbbbefc4c45d6f3527e0b5731d","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ab073c78653237bf6ec41fefee4b588af9b586f837cc11ad90d106f2dfd247ec","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/df0a3dd0e975075909c402708975583a03cc061663ad036b07fcf4cc28262beb","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/bd6245bcc4680166426225c5977fb1d14d0d7e31c278a8058074c816600c92c4","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/68faf2bf5fd5a5be015c12aaae72375b3c51e8970f1d2f1a7ebae0a2d5778a44","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e1c12ce3cc7a88554cbf01355b372ab17ebf9b316cba4551619b941bb6bfdd07","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2de79b91d7148cad87eb7f287f1507c9660051848065e7d2d15dcbdff1ade16c","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/62427ee29a4a6e07869b49a00990b4ec55946337570b3316ebf24fe6c8e676b3"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/89be24fcca51102bd68c17faaddb6d56cf44ad960ee624b5023444adaf6b95c3","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/32fe26ca936946d5e866765f7b19edcf2377c3a06898fb7d321f27d55615dfca","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/945db5bb2bca16c51da29f28ceba3ea79b7326f9432da7fc93c19ec83774b104","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/05054378adced749acea1b5107ec2bfa5219593520af8e7f9f02a19584f511ce","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2a10e336ee0e686fd9eac0030224933260261ab251973e3b93213537f8e88b5a","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/03663ba04ce574bd38ce52d34e87523450898858179eaca5f8c142bbe68f40fa","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/cc1de44b819438275c47defab6f6ef66f045a1f50d327dcba2b50c504607ed96","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f861b27d432488d2539fcc8f556983c5e229b96c0f1cbb9ff5bde248c65c0afb"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report provides an assessment of house prices relative to a household\u2019s capacity to borrow and pay for the purchase of a house in selected Canadian cities.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport pr\u00e9sente une \u00e9valuation du prix des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s par rapport \u00e0 la capacit\u00e9 des m\u00e9nages d\u2019emprunter et de payer pour l\u2019achat d\u2019une maison dans certaines villes canadiennes.","highlights":[{"content":{"en":"Beginning in 2015\u2014and prior to the pandemic\u2014house prices in several cities (Hamilton, Toronto, Ottawa, Victoria, Halifax and Vancouver) \u201cde-linked\u201d from household borrowing capacity, rising 20 per cent, or higher, above affordable prices.","fr":"\u00c0 partir de 2015, et avant la pand\u00e9mie, le prix des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s dans plusieurs villes (Hamilton, Toronto, Ottawa, Victoria, Halifax et Vancouver) s\u2019est \u00ab dissoci\u00e9 \u00bb de la capacit\u00e9 d\u2019emprunt des m\u00e9nages, s\u2019\u00e9levant \u00e0 20 %, ou m\u00eame plus, au-dessus des prix abordables."}},{"content":{"en":"Household borrowing capacity increased during the pandemic due to lower interest rates and COVID-19 financial support. However, further increases in house prices far outpaced gains in borrowing capacity, resulting in wider gaps in affordability.","fr":"La capacit\u00e9 d\u2019emprunt des m\u00e9nages a augment\u00e9 pendant la pand\u00e9mie en raison de la baisse des taux d\u2019int\u00e9r\u00eat et du soutien financier li\u00e9 \u00e0 la COVID-19. Toutefois, les nouvelles augmentations du prix des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s ont largement d\u00e9pass\u00e9 les gains sur le plan de la capacit\u00e9 d\u2019emprunt, ce qui a entra\u00een\u00e9 des \u00e9carts d\u2019accessibilit\u00e9 plus importants."}},{"content":{"en":"At the end of 2021, the average house price nationally was $811,700\u2014an increase of 43 per cent from December 2019 and a 97 per cent increase compared to January 2015.","fr":"\u00c0 la fin de 2021, le prix moyen des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s \u00e0 l\u2019\u00e9chelle nationale \u00e9tait de 811 700 $ \u2013 soit 43 % de plus qu\u2019en d\u00e9cembre 2019 et 97 % de plus qu\u2019en janvier 2015."}},{"content":{"en":"We estimate that in December 2021, average house prices in Hamilton, Toronto, Halifax and Ottawa were more than 50 per cent above affordable levels, based on household borrowing capacity.","fr":"Nous estimons que, en d\u00e9cembre 2021, le prix moyen des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s \u00e0 Hamilton, Toronto, Halifax et Ottawa \u00e9taient sup\u00e9rieurs de plus de 50 % aux niveaux abordables, selon la capacit\u00e9 d\u2019emprunt des m\u00e9nages."}},{"content":{"en":"While approximate, our results suggest that household financial vulnerability is elevated in several cities for households that have recently purchased homes.","fr":"Bien qu\u2019approximatifs, nos r\u00e9sultats sugg\u00e8rent que la vuln\u00e9rabilit\u00e9 financi\u00e8re des m\u00e9nages qui ont r\u00e9cemment achet\u00e9 une maison est \u00e9lev\u00e9e dans plusieurs villes."}}]},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122029S,\n author={Behrend, Robert and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={House Price Assessment: A Borrowing Capacity Perspective},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122029S,\n author={Behrend, Robert and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={\\\u0027{E}valuation du prix des propri\\\u0027{e}t\\\u0027{e}s - Un portrait de la capacit\\\u0027{e} d\u2019emprunt},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2022,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2122-016-S","is_published":"2021-08-16T13:00:03.000000Z","release_date":"2021-08-16T13:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-09-16T16:47:11.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2122-016-S","title_en":"2021 Election Proposal Costing Baseline","title_fr":"Co\u00fbt des mesures propos\u00e9es pendant la campagne \u00e9lectorale de 2021 : pr\u00e9vision de r\u00e9f\u00e9rence","slug":"RP-2122-016-S--2021-election-proposal-costing-baseline--cout-mesures-proposees-pendant-campagne-electorale-2021-prevision-reference","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-016-S--2021-election-proposal-costing-baseline--cout-mesures-proposees-pendant-campagne-electorale-2021-prevision-reference","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2122-016-S--2021-election-proposal-costing-baseline--cout-mesures-proposees-pendant-campagne-electorale-2021-prevision-reference"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-016-S--2021-election-proposal-costing-baseline--cout-mesures-proposees-pendant-campagne-electorale-2021-prevision-reference","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2122-016-S--2021-election-proposal-costing-baseline--cout-mesures-proposees-pendant-campagne-electorale-2021-prevision-reference"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/0c1012241fb6faad32a0bccebbc2e2895ae46af211c4c75eba22edf5aa75d611"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/aecf888dd10e4c14cf15e1f916894103fcbed9c3b6b475e11a361363b1571ac7"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fda8c00bad689d6a23cbc69bb9db22866be6231cc738e4f9993fb125425d8bb3","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fe50b1dce3d2a98d216293416081b0e632a1dd89d1f08f5379e69b4999dfe030","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8f7e1aaf1119b97fd0365b6cd93556ac3b4f465ad2b63c57c42d6750d73d96cb","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4979a40a2dcfb50dc2fa5f9ab9e1894e2de5c5ceda5997dfb645bd020c4c12c4","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9024b0a5a8cb947beb321914c0d50bec535b769c40670d1f2b123609b88be86b","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/75b10d28d0908a3d1c5630c50ef4b5c3349edc52f44b363f571f3f4b9400ded0","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/96a22e674b7f5046676041a3b96678c0ed2ecbd70f5bfc2a07bae38607f55efb","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1351c5f34545cbf649db985bcec354dcfbf40dceebccb36db9f1b7d971a69a2f"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/5ead501ed7fa0e14c0d96d175afabfd16dcc2a1cbe78390c5d9d91e7b50d6eac","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4d0100066e4a18da726fc416c4e47a8901403edf386462bc59eba424fd6297cf","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2c4b0c9382e2ea2ce00e753fd1ff6b2b30be8ec87ca641976004c68963115e9c","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/06d96336cb1030a348db2400a7e4859ca8ad3321d0b716e5aadf76820945d874","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/0af6503ffe14bc21a78706559c760a77015ded2fad76882c4acdd7f9851a8cbb","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e9563aee1b3ced4ed80a814cd8bb6619c3f28f5c3645f7dd7aa5620d97e3905b","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/63aa29a8f4626e62e109a190bfcd61e5275a5ce76aa62ad9216b0ec59469b9f6","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/b32aec6918189e7fc569ffb13ea2ba3c10a10e80483bc38938f8a270d1afb33b"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report presents PBO\u2019s economic and fiscal baseline projection for the 2021 election proposal costing period.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport contient des pr\u00e9visions \u00e9conomiques et financi\u00e8res de r\u00e9f\u00e9rence pour les estimations du co\u00fbt des promesses \u00e9lectorales de 2021.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122016S,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Nicol, Caroline and Behrend, Robert and Bergeron, \\\u0027{E}tienne and Creighton, Mark and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Michalyshyn, Katarina and Segel-Brown, Ben},\n title={2021 Election Proposal Costing Baseline},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122016S,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Nicol, Caroline and Behrend, Robert and Bergeron, \\\u0027{E}tienne and Creighton, Mark 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report is intended to help parliamentarians understand federal program spending on housing affordability. It provides an update on our 2019 report, Federal Program Spending on Housing Affordability in response to questions raised by parliamentarians.\n\nThe planned spending profile for some of the programs identified in this report are dependent on final program design being confirmed.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport vise \u00e0 aider les parlementaires \u00e0 comprendre les d\u00e9penses f\u00e9d\u00e9rales de programmes consacr\u00e9es \u00e0 l\u2019abordabilit\u00e9 du logement. Nous y pr\u00e9sentons une mise \u00e0 jour de notre rapport de 2019, intitul\u00e9 D\u00e9penses f\u00e9d\u00e9rales de programmes consacr\u00e9es \u00e0 l\u2019abordabilit\u00e9 du logement, afin de r\u00e9pondre \u00e0 leurs questions.\n\nLe profil des d\u00e9penses pr\u00e9vues de certains programmes mentionn\u00e9s dans ce rapport d\u00e9pend de la confirmation de leur structure finale.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2122014S,\n author={Segel-Brown, Ben and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Federal Program Spending on Housing Affordability in 2021},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2122014S,\n author={Segel-Brown, Ben and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={D\\\u0027{e}penses f\\\u0027{e}d\\\u0027{e}rales de programmes consacr\\\u0027{e}es \\`{a} l\u2019abordabilit\\\u0027{e} du logement en 2021},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"LEG-2122-007-S","is_published":"2021-05-27T13:00:03.000000Z","release_date":"2021-05-27T13:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-05-27T14:10:39.000000Z","type":"LEG","internal_id":"LEG-2122-007-S","title_en":"Digital services tax","title_fr":"Taxe sur les services num\u00e9riques","slug":"LEG-2122-007-S--digital-services-tax--taxe-services-numeriques","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/LEG-2122-007-S--digital-services-tax--taxe-services-numeriques","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/LEG-2122-007-S--digital-services-tax--taxe-services-numeriques"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/LEG-2122-007-S--digital-services-tax--taxe-services-numeriques","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/LEG-2122-007-S--digital-services-tax--taxe-services-numeriques"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/51a742cdc76393dd561f7034436ef62a624d25887b6d1ef39665a25d188b13fa"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/4779a90ff9c8c6b3d95645993f5baf1acc8a6f9e2090b5d3bc827bfd7f34ff40"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ce0e424cf6a97eb6ccbad319f3194ade8515cb4b53fa8ae3c2c57d38a378b537","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7e892fe5418d9cc470cee9fe2b8aa2356d2ccc03d2331d23a441d4f91646efb7","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/babe0cde95b9321acbadeafdb10d8d094b1ef9b242e64c599d73418d8e985529","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d425a94bfc23bf1d9f874fb09e090fa0145ac6ef98120f848a8159c7710d81fd","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f4af3c1d86fceb74eaeb5eeac4bd3ec313b29f499178db367897a06d7bda1477","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/0ac4ea5d402234f8a012dcc85d7a4c5bfa5d60152448e65a41f53539524fb200","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/602856186947e9167f98d0a80af176e74683000f9cec56736a203680688747ad","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d5911d2d513e093a8b01b9768672d1cb8a4f5b5219dcfa890df610c364b621a1"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4f31e76e3622453b30cec39518474d6f08a319c2ce06e42a9aaac97714c04948","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8cc11a7add9481296c47795747a85e8c73ec456cc60684203c0c74c69479a6c7","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/627a113476337029efbfaaf6ff7918f09dfdb0f4d72c0b62be67daf2d112628b","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9584fef1aefe181afa76d4fd7be0ed5806612c45d67fb4759ff4a1fa30b37daa","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f9f7471ea3de5df9a7cfd574772ecaa6a159c606ec6432c59cdf9988122dc3fd","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d8f957ca0a2f2c76794f944960c0f55031046e09a2f069c33615b400bec1d8ab","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/5d3802a66e61d7c19753529027bbb506111600894efe3f9f9de958ee1d4c2596","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ea5e9c7823245e01477335079ef561b48ceb563689e7bffb69bbb0f301f920e2"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"Implementation of a new tax on revenues for companies offering digital services. The tax will take effect January 1, 2022. This measure is temporary and will only apply in the event that Canada does not reach a multilateral agreement on the taxation of digital services.\n\nIt will be a 3% tax on revenues collected by online marketplaces, social media, online advertising services, and user data sales and licensing services. This tax will apply to businesses with worldwide revenues of at least \u20ac750 million and Canadian revenues of more than $20 million.","abstract_fr":"Mise en place d\u2019une nouvelle taxe sur le revenu des soci\u00e9t\u00e9s offrant des services num\u00e9riques. La taxe entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier 2022. Cette mesure est provisoire et ne s\u2019appliquera que dans le cas o\u00f9 le Canada ne parviendrait pas \u00e0 une entente multilat\u00e9rale pour la taxation des services num\u00e9riques. \n\nIl s\u2019agira d\u2019une taxe de 3 % sur les recettes per\u00e7ues par les places de march\u00e9 en ligne, les m\u00e9dias sociaux, les services de publicit\u00e9 en ligne et les services de vente et de licence de donn\u00e9es de l\u2019utilisateur. Cette taxe s\u2019appliquera aux entreprises ayant des recettes mondiales d\u2019au moins 750 millions d\u2019euros et des recettes canadiennes de plus de 20 millions de dollars.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-LEG2122007S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Digital services tax},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-LEG2122007S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Taxe sur les services num\\\u0027{e}riques},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-046-S","is_published":"2021-03-31T13:00:05.000000Z","release_date":"2021-03-31T13:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-04-09T14:19:48.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-046-S","title_en":"Pre-Budget Outlook","title_fr":"Perspectives 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Creighton, Mark and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Mohamed Ahmed, Salma and Nahornick, Nora and Segel-Brown, Ben and Wodrich, Nigel},\n title={Perspectives pr\\\u0027{e}budg\\\u0027{e}taires},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"LEG-2021-061-S","is_published":"2021-01-28T14:00:12.000000Z","release_date":"2021-01-28T14:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-01-28T14:00:12.000000Z","type":"LEG","internal_id":"LEG-2021-061-S","title_en":"International corporate tax and digitalization","title_fr":"Imp\u00f4t sur le revenu des soci\u00e9t\u00e9s et num\u00e9risation \u00e0 l\u2019\u00e9chelle internationale","slug":"LEG-2021-061-S--international-corporate-tax-digitalization--impot-revenu-societes-numerisation-echelle-internationale","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/LEG-2021-061-S--international-corporate-tax-digitalization--impot-revenu-societes-numerisation-echelle-internationale","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/LEG-2021-061-S--international-corporate-tax-digitalization--impot-revenu-societes-numerisation-echelle-internationale"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/LEG-2021-061-S--international-corporate-tax-digitalization--impot-revenu-societes-numerisation-echelle-internationale","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/LEG-2021-061-S--international-corporate-tax-digitalization--impot-revenu-societes-numerisation-echelle-internationale"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/ffd607f942a7bb13e8cf19b88c34d124137c5823e99a1c525d107b9b6cc61e52"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/cc67acf6b4b7ffc8d90acd62c60e3878f6444d3ef565264712a17882869a1105"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ab5fca24715c60937b97a15d9a9ae68d561b6ecb","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/805b06c37e14d6cf819be4b2a83b0f16a7fc8d36","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/0160a6f2ccfe2d099f02feaa29aada2e4f7c7939","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7d8ad33e8939fe341f2753358305cc2cb26a8bc8","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f5dd8f362b1ccf3978d1846066bc48ff630ee89e","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f08bc59590e898b3c8ab3ebbb49be726cefea0ee","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/55060c6025d346fb94dd653554312581d363cb92","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1966dd8929bc0aad83be0686f53cd05ca7851d90"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9d7381b515f07e2925257acfac6a81b775f80af3","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8baa1067ea6a99c70917d39b577667641f068b93","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9c2a298aaaa97cda43c5b9651f7931bcd5d250ed","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/69dd28fad1b783325072843a16c63b60390dcb76","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4e1e5d9d73d7db8892d33b46734e5becb4cb791e","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4b56be1977c224ea5f017752c356dbe31180ac8d","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9a062f9c341ad949c66f3a10d8e9df5b030d162b","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1a951c6ed459ce7587e60526cdca5748bf3bfbb4"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"Implementation of a new corporate income tax for companies offering digital services. The tax will take effect January 1, 2022 and details will be revealed in the 2021 budget. \n\nIt is assumed that it will be a 3% tax introduced as a value-added tax (VAT), targeting advertising and digital intermediation services, and will apply to businesses with worldwide revenues of at least $1 billion and Canadian revenues of more than $40 million.\n\nThis assumption is consistent with the cost estimate of the tax on digital services carried out during the last election campaign and is based on article 1 of Law No. 2019-759 passed in France.","abstract_fr":"Mise en place d\u2019une nouvelle taxe sur le revenu des soci\u00e9t\u00e9s offrant des services num\u00e9riques. La taxe entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier 2022 et les d\u00e9tails seront r\u00e9v\u00e9l\u00e9s dans le budget de 2021. \n\nNous faisons l\u2019hypoth\u00e8se qu\u2019il s\u2019agira d\u2019une taxe de 3 % introduite comme une taxe sur la valeur ajout\u00e9e (TVA), qui ciblera les services de publicit\u00e9 et les services d\u2019interm\u00e9diation num\u00e9rique, et qui s\u2019appliquera aux entreprises ayant des recettes mondiales d\u2019au moins 1 milliard de dollars et des recettes canadiennes de plus de 40 millions de dollars.\n\nCette hypoth\u00e8se est coh\u00e9rente avec l\u2019estimation de co\u00fbt de la taxe sur les services num\u00e9riques r\u00e9alis\u00e9e lors de la derni\u00e8re campagne \u00e9lectorale et s\u2019inspire de l\u2019article 1 de la loi n\u00b0 2019-759 vot\u00e9e en France.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-LEG2021061S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={International corporate tax and digitalization},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-LEG2021061S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Imp\\^{o}t sur le revenu des soci\\\u0027{e}t\\\u0027{e}s et num\\\u0027{e}risation \\`{a} l\u2019\\\u0027{e}chelle internationale},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2021,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-019-S","is_published":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","release_date":"2020-10-08T04:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-019-S","title_en":"Carbon pricing for the Paris target: Closing the gap with output-based pricing","title_fr":"Tarification du carbone et Accord de Paris : combler l\u2019\u00e9cart avec la tarification fond\u00e9e sur le rendement","slug":"RP-2021-019-S--carbon-pricing-paris-target-closing-gap-with-output-based-pricing--tarification-carbone-accord-paris-combler-ecart-avec-tarification-fondee-rendement","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-019-S--carbon-pricing-paris-target-closing-gap-with-output-based-pricing--tarification-carbone-accord-paris-combler-ecart-avec-tarification-fondee-rendement","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-019-S--carbon-pricing-paris-target-closing-gap-with-output-based-pricing--tarification-carbone-accord-paris-combler-ecart-avec-tarification-fondee-rendement"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-019-S--carbon-pricing-paris-target-closing-gap-with-output-based-pricing--tarification-carbone-accord-paris-combler-ecart-avec-tarification-fondee-rendement","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-019-S--carbon-pricing-paris-target-closing-gap-with-output-based-pricing--tarification-carbone-accord-paris-combler-ecart-avec-tarification-fondee-rendement"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/ef757a9aa52112b1181f9d212d6ce95e739a0c46af2e2cc8d4552cfaef029b64"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/5d95cab5320e08befd1371aa6cb8a4245ffbdea32b66b9eaa8e7bf29537aa3eb"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3a7f4430959f613634a2f6d544e552b5fc4b1b49","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/b35a184ad26c0116920a66fd370e7d981876fa53","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/29d5324ae773b485297f4fe3b8ef190b7a78ebef","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/add0708183ad085d0931b7ec6c673d0085187412","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/19683d56f3adbeced5dd171acfe6f1e497f983de","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7876b4575f87d340bbe17ad446cd1d31fa88a4db","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/220edfe84ae6db481fe578e292f1664c6067f12f","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/a53a8eaca13907c6117c6cbb4fe8f1bb4c50801a"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d2a52890fd5e6c19f705dc07a8d1ad82ecbf877f","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/19de710dcc67fbfa347f46b239caa9d278c058e9","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3b9befef3e9cc643b7f46b98bb5ce02bd3d32767","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8c696da4c202ce9e54b7ed2dd20e73cd45866581","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3400a1068ac1b7e0cd1f49b9553d29c7fe5dff69","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9ac0c483ecac0c33caff300fa5de561214b236cd","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/011021235750992c2d4bc36721f29153e2aad337","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2e6ad370c071f8d8dd6e0e4f455259967132196c"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report updates and extends PBO\u2019s analysis of the additional carbon pricing needed to achieve Canada\u2019s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions target in 2030 under the Paris Agreement.\n\nWe provide an updated estimate based on a broad carbon levy and extend our analysis to incorporate additional carbon pricing using an Output-Based Pricing System (OBPS), taking into consideration alternative structures. Estimates of the corresponding impacts on the Canadian economy are also provided.","abstract_fr":"Le pr\u00e9sent rapport actualise et \u00e9toffe l\u2019analyse du DPB sur les mesures de tarification suppl\u00e9mentaires n\u00e9cessaires pour atteindre l\u2019objectif de r\u00e9duction des gaz \u00e0 effet de serre (GES) fix\u00e9 pour 2030 dans l\u2019Accord de Paris.\n\nNous fournissons une estimation \u00e0 jour de la tarification du carbone n\u00e9cessaire pour atteindre cet objectif et nous \u00e9largissons la port\u00e9e de notre analyse pour y incorporer une tarification suppl\u00e9mentaire du carbone au moyen d\u2019un syst\u00e8me de tarification fond\u00e9 sur le rendement (STFR), en tenant compte de diff\u00e9rentes structures possibles. Une estimation des r\u00e9percussions sur l\u2019\u00e9conomie canadienne de chaque formule est \u00e9galement incluse dans ce rapport.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2021019S,\n author={Bagnoli, Philip and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Carbon pricing for the Paris target: Closing the gap with output-based pricing},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2021019S,\n author={Bagnoli, Philip and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Tarification du carbone et Accord de Paris : combler l\u2019\\\u0027{e}cart avec la tarification fond\\\u0027{e}e sur le rendement},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-022-S","is_published":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","release_date":"2020-10-02T04:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-022-S","title_en":"Crown corporations\u2019 COVID-19 liquidity support","title_fr":"Soutien \u00e0 la liquidit\u00e9 des soci\u00e9t\u00e9s d\u2019\u00c9tat en r\u00e9ponse \u00e0 la COVID-19","slug":"RP-2021-022-S--crown-corporations-covid-19-liquidity-support--soutien-liquidite-societes-etat-en-reponse-covid-19","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-022-S--crown-corporations-covid-19-liquidity-support--soutien-liquidite-societes-etat-en-reponse-covid-19","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-022-S--crown-corporations-covid-19-liquidity-support--soutien-liquidite-societes-etat-en-reponse-covid-19"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-022-S--crown-corporations-covid-19-liquidity-support--soutien-liquidite-societes-etat-en-reponse-covid-19","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-022-S--crown-corporations-covid-19-liquidity-support--soutien-liquidite-societes-etat-en-reponse-covid-19"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/ba4dd5941d973cee718b5c52adbd4f12d12d2221ddd16d4c6ffa35ebbc226159"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/57599fce2ebbde3d89dc92bf775dc24c11497f686f12042bd76139b9e8380dd6"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ea2747c688e822910da576b6f2deb3f754fb0616","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/58ec5d90f6af96fb2beb576c919bf7bf5c6d08d8","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/53a7859438c90420fbba5b874098d485534bf777","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/1a3b179b85f506fa24c7885cd05aa142645bb935","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2e7b0b676e551a1350e906bb935baffa5ae73b1d","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/44205fb3aa7acd98aaef4c5d8336af9b5c05f6c8","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/08a05bfb1d10e176c33eb7a7f93e736d213b2ce6","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fad9156c2e00d7e00a99054802dc52a417127552"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/3744b031dae322da0be37a105e46d2865d65412a","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fee625adc39d1e89f9bff46974f146a1e9c20e05","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/c890065d98fac422654f2c91c10314622034b1dd","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/801ba5945f646c23dfd4cb7899a6ed4172ede759","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/dd15b68e273fcbff1ac7ed590ec71ccce4e3f979","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f9dafeb64a78dc2e14882b03ab6ae6e78088f551","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/42c1c6e72367d8e3a424058c541a3e6fd99a371a","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/cc80bb59c09008c359a1ff77cf8c5ec36b79ec4d"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report summarizes the federal package of COVID-19 liquidity support programs provided through five federal Crown corporations. PBO estimates total liquidity supports through August 2020, and highlights gaps in publicly-available risk metrics for these supports.","abstract_fr":"Ce rapport expose les grandes lignes du train de mesures de soutien \u00e0 la liquidit\u00e9 offertes par cinq soci\u00e9t\u00e9s d\u2019\u00c9tat f\u00e9d\u00e9rales en r\u00e9ponse \u00e0 la COVID-19. Le DPB fait une estimation de ce que repr\u00e9sentent l\u2019ensemble de ces mesures jusqu\u2019au mois d\u2019ao\u00fbt 2020, et souligne l\u2019insuffisance de donn\u00e9es accessibles au public sur les risques que comportent ces mesures.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2021022S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and Stanton, Jason},\n title={Crown corporations\u2019 COVID-19 liquidity support},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2021022S,\n author={Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and Stanton, Jason},\n title={Soutien \\`{a} la liquidit\\\u0027{e} des soci\\\u0027{e}t\\\u0027{e}s d\u2019\\\u0027{E}tat en r\\\u0027{e}ponse \\`{a} la COVID-19},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-027-S","is_published":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","release_date":"2020-09-29T04:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-027-S","title_en":"Economic and Fiscal Outlook \u2013 September 2020","title_fr":"Perspectives \u00e9conomiques et financi\u00e8res \u2013 Septembre 2020","slug":"RP-2021-027-S--economic-fiscal-outlook-september-2020--perspectives-economiques-financieres-septembre-2020","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-027-S--economic-fiscal-outlook-september-2020--perspectives-economiques-financieres-septembre-2020","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-027-S--economic-fiscal-outlook-september-2020--perspectives-economiques-financieres-septembre-2020"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-027-S--economic-fiscal-outlook-september-2020--perspectives-economiques-financieres-septembre-2020","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-027-S--economic-fiscal-outlook-september-2020--perspectives-economiques-financieres-septembre-2020"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/8059b833d83a3c8eeef55a64fe8229d860c3224f72f87882e6a2689107db96cc"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/cd6fc56f52dd24674b4ab3b58ae193ae09c121ff716798c904497880793f7399"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/04e180f534ebbd5434b4e42b9a2abb17f894d5e6","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/b6a33221f0a83495d2feb46766ae5edb21ea8074","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d39288ff1ddda4506695f5d5126064f69e4d9f4c","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/dbdcd5ae9785d0ddd01c1e16fcdf7f232d726a6a","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8f1b138a0dce94f3cd943f8e2293440f7013a237","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2bfe982efaeae12fa678368aece1a937fd9b534f","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/5ae5e0d6b7097c9bbd1458ee381f4136e63b022f","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/62d3dcfad42c3d5dfe148c03c2b5e5ded478982e"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7cf000de2c3d22e6e7337e14c748f647fef4a1c7","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7b5393d01473a0408e33e0308b25c2c6abf0b533","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/a7a4169e3c04466fe0b0cb1020257445bc8e78db","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/d827f5112f1ac0dbd1a570fab6bde1961088155d","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4db54f1a9d78884d78f03cb1fa830d4e8999bd7b","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ec39254e1a77524171d23106e02c78bf2f04c14c","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/9fc986fe1074f04ce74ec1cb1c7c0def3cbab5ca","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e85080154ec3c0bc6a74d54788c5cb0dceb5018b"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report provides a baseline projection to help parliamentarians gauge potential economic and fiscal outcomes under current policy settings. **PBO\u2019s outlook is not a prediction of future economic and budgetary outcomes.**\n\nThis report incorporates announced federal budgetary measures up to and including 1 September 2020. Financial results for fiscal year 2019-20 shown in this report are PBO estimates and not final Public Accounts results.","abstract_fr":"Le pr\u00e9sent rapport propose une pr\u00e9vision de r\u00e9f\u00e9rence pour aider les parlementaires \u00e0 \u00e9valuer les r\u00e9sultats \u00e9conomiques et financiers possibles dans le cadre des politiques actuelles. **Les perspectives du DPB ne constituent pas une pr\u00e9diction des r\u00e9sultats \u00e9conomiques et financiers futurs.**\n\nCe rapport tient compte des mesures budg\u00e9taires f\u00e9d\u00e9rales annonc\u00e9es jusqu\u2019au 1er septembre 2020 inclusivement. Les r\u00e9sultats financiers de l\u2019exercice 2019-2020 pr\u00e9sent\u00e9s dans ce rapport sont des estimations du DPB et non les r\u00e9sultats d\u00e9finitifs des comptes publics.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2021027S,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Scholz, Tim and Behrend, Robert and Bergeron, \\\u0027{E}tienne and Devakos, Tessa and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Mohamed Ahmed, Salma and Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Sourang, Diarra and Wodrich, Nigel},\n title={Economic and Fiscal Outlook - September 2020},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2021027S,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Scholz, Tim and Behrend, Robert and Bergeron, \\\u0027{E}tienne and Devakos, Tessa and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Mohamed Ahmed, Salma and Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Sourang, Diarra and Wodrich, Nigel},\n title={Perspectives \\\u0027{e}conomiques et financi\\`{e}res - Septembre 2020},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-013-S","is_published":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","release_date":"2020-06-25T04:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-07-20T17:55:16.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-013-S","title_en":"Provincial Government Liquidity Outlook","title_fr":"Perspectives sur la liquidit\u00e9 des gouvernements provinciaux","slug":"RP-2021-013-S--provincial-government-liquidity-outlook--perspectives-liquidite-gouvernements-provinciaux","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-013-S--provincial-government-liquidity-outlook--perspectives-liquidite-gouvernements-provinciaux","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-013-S--provincial-government-liquidity-outlook--perspectives-liquidite-gouvernements-provinciaux"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-013-S--provincial-government-liquidity-outlook--perspectives-liquidite-gouvernements-provinciaux","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-013-S--provincial-government-liquidity-outlook--perspectives-liquidite-gouvernements-provinciaux"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/796050fa8f2fba167ad0000ed03d54eab3b360b3f4de56edc1d53c2a7e9c8ef7"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/01688df19a51a6d440dc6e9729278c2045384d12e21d29541cf97bd64fecc3a9"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/a266bae561ef46956530dfab5c4ec8070ba33ca1","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fe108fec52c1c88089324f848003b94e3c437b1a","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/08d583946a7ea8ab73f70aea04d476e391b63703","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/59445aea3ca1a7e2a8567fe2cb769d36b3990fd8","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8bcc415232e9564456e966c9d31b0affebbcc1a5","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/30f51b7d79319c502ef29c2cc0d7740535dc0b11","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/a36676889cf81ee857068b500eb7ddae9bffe7d2","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/2888399f966d39a9a2acac45d81acace9c9a242d"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/4e95950a27a583a2a4475783fccab4083fa9cc85","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/0e035549031b777ddce6e84c47a3297895809985","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/0dda389eb4a811f62ffcd2b8e5528a4b2dca82e6","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/61328f57d10e1b58c65f27634fce0be0431bbeca","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/918a59511270821756e502b77df474ab4d7ca761","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/812ce3dbc7306396353f90be3c79475ab6d7bb39","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e75c86b402cb0d08ac9511eba5f2fb246c90e5d2","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ef2e5ee76d9627b724bf6805fb1b27aac92c1db5"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"Economic uncertainties generated by the public health response to COVID 19 and record low oil prices have disrupted financial markets. \nBeginning in March, there was an abrupt global flight to cash, which began to constrain credit access for provincial governments, among other Canadian issuers of debt. Soon after, the Bank of Canada intervened to directly support liquidity in provincial governments\u2019 funding markets by buying short-term and long-term debt, and by purchasing provincial debt on a temporary basis using term repurchase operations.\nThe purpose of this report is to address questions from several parliamentarians about potential uptake of the new Bank of Canada (the Bank) provincial liquidity-support programs.\nThe Bank\u2019s liquidity support programs are designed to address temporary financing challenges. Overall, PBO estimates that provincial governments will have liquidity requirements of at least $195 billion by the end of 2021. This accounts for $67 billion in COVID-related provincial spending, $119 billion of provincial debt that must be refinanced in 2020 or 2021, and $9 billion in planned deficits (pre-COVID-19).\nOn 31 May, the Bank held $59 billion in provincial debt.\nRelative to their provincial economies, the governments of Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador have the largest estimated liquidity needs until 2021.\nLong-term fiscal sustainability for provincial governments is determined by structural factors and would not be meaningfully affected by these liquidity-support programs.","abstract_fr":"L\u2019incertitude \u00e9conomique engendr\u00e9e par la r\u00e9ponse de la sant\u00e9 publique \u00e0 la COVID-19 et la chute sans pr\u00e9c\u00e9dent des prix du p\u00e9trole a perturb\u00e9 les march\u00e9s financiers.\nD\u00e8s le mois de mars, une ru\u00e9e mondiale vers la liquidit\u00e9 a subitement limit\u00e9 l\u2019acc\u00e8s au cr\u00e9dit des gouvernements provinciaux, entre autres \u00e9metteurs de dette canadiens. Peu de temps apr\u00e8s, la Banque du Canada intervenait pour soutenir directement les march\u00e9s de financement des provinces en achetant des titres de cr\u00e9ance \u00e0 court et \u00e0 long terme, et en acqu\u00e9rant temporairement la dette des provinces au moyen d\u2019op\u00e9rations de prise en pension \u00e0 plus d\u2019un jour.\nLe pr\u00e9sent rapport a pour objectif de r\u00e9pondre aux questions de plusieurs parlementaires concernant l\u2019\u00e9ventuelle adoption de nouveaux programmes de soutien \u00e0 la liquidit\u00e9 des provinces par la Banque du Canada (la Banque).\nLes programmes de soutien \u00e0 la liquidit\u00e9 de la Banque sont con\u00e7us pour r\u00e9pondre \u00e0 des probl\u00e8mes financiers temporaires. Dans l\u2019ensemble, le DPB estime que les gouvernements provinciaux auront besoin de liquidit\u00e9s de l\u2019ordre d\u2019au moins 195 milliards de dollars d\u2019ici la fin de 2021. Cette somme tient compte des d\u00e9penses provinciales li\u00e9es \u00e0 la COVID-19 totalisant 67 milliards de dollars, de la dette des provinces de 119 milliards de dollars qui doit \u00eatre refinanc\u00e9e en 2020 ou en 2021, et des d\u00e9ficits pr\u00e9vus de 9 milliards de dollars (avant la pand\u00e9mie).\nEn date du 31 mai 2020, la dette des provinces d\u00e9tenue par la Banque s\u2019\u00e9levait \u00e0 59 milliards de dollars.\nEn ce qui a trait aux \u00e9conomies des provinces, les gouvernements du Manitoba et de Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador sont ceux qui, selon les estimations, auront le plus besoin de liquidit\u00e9s jusqu\u2019en 2021.\nLa viabilit\u00e9 budg\u00e9taire \u00e0 long terme des gouvernements provinciaux est d\u00e9termin\u00e9e par des facteurs structurels, et celle-ci ne serait pas grandement touch\u00e9e par ces programmes de soutien \u00e0 la liquidit\u00e9.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2021013S,\n author={MacPhee, Sarah and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Provincial Government Liquidity Outlook},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP2021013S,\n author={MacPhee, Sarah and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Perspectives sur la liquidit\\\u0027{e} des gouvernements provinciaux},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2020,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}} {"id":"RP-2021-009-S","is_published":"2021-01-26T20:16:02.000000Z","release_date":"2020-06-18T04:00:00.000000Z","updated_at":"2021-07-20T18:54:22.000000Z","type":"RP","internal_id":"RP-2021-009-S","title_en":"Scenario Analysis Update: COVID-19 Pandemic and Oil Price Shocks","title_fr":"Mise \u00e0 jour de l\u2019analyse de sc\u00e9nario : chocs dus \u00e0 la pand\u00e9mie de la COVID-19 et \u00e0 la chute des prix du p\u00e9trole","slug":"RP-2021-009-S--scenario-analysis-update-covid-19-pandemic-oil-price-shocks--mise-jour-analyse-scenario-chocs-dus-pandemie-covid-19-chute-prix-petrole","permalinks":{"en":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-009-S--scenario-analysis-update-covid-19-pandemic-oil-price-shocks--mise-jour-analyse-scenario-chocs-dus-pandemie-covid-19-chute-prix-petrole","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/en\/publications\/RP-2021-009-S--scenario-analysis-update-covid-19-pandemic-oil-price-shocks--mise-jour-analyse-scenario-chocs-dus-pandemie-covid-19-chute-prix-petrole"},"fr":{"website":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-009-S--scenario-analysis-update-covid-19-pandemic-oil-price-shocks--mise-jour-analyse-scenario-chocs-dus-pandemie-covid-19-chute-prix-petrole","preview":"https:\/\/www.pbo-dpb.ca\/fr\/publications\/RP-2021-009-S--scenario-analysis-update-covid-19-pandemic-oil-price-shocks--mise-jour-analyse-scenario-chocs-dus-pandemie-covid-19-chute-prix-petrole"}},"artifacts":{"main":{"en":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/1db1d0d4eacedb3f2f1b1ef08ab36f802f5c3a758e562dd11574c57b143c4ef4"},"fr":{"public":"https:\/\/distribution-a617274656661637473.pbo-dpb.ca\/6f88b6ea3b83a8472303467b91f3e4969ea97f4290623fec354711254ff9b3c8"}}},"coverpages":{"distribution":{"fr":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/7f38c7c8e4898644cbc382fc299d889476c2ac59","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/fc9decf395b7e3f0a56fbaf51c5c92f9739cbc96","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/20ed4163a68ead017cb0bf396accc87cc0ef6182","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/061688c2206886a1e1902da3d227b8ba0739cc4b","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/dd404991c0ebfaf61cfeafced1b4de9e63da1cdc","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/ae5bc66544e4ec986baafc92da2cce9b0e55d23f","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/f7a239572fdf92f2475ea82a2b953b59bc285c25","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/cbe53d45806e96f4157c203e61d3d989c1e52b04"},"en":{"small":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/8bd6c59d533127d9d9638542391b8a8bbba6141a","large":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/68e45b805e4c6f7abc370318dec8c3ab257aa1c9","h150_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/281770366663561a563506babd2a907530a4507a","h150_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/6d64e91d585d3c82c9c88ab900e69d02acadd623","h300_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/e63abe04f99db2578e78e12f21664c0f66fc7517","h300_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/54b27b3f2aaf4d2fbcac814c5422f7c63eb3c19f","h600_png_optimized":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/948f75ee2ee7f2f1cf265a8fd65d742cd7770e5d","h600_webp":"https:\/\/distribution-i696d61676573.pbo-dpb.ca\/a7ab304b835e9077c78430c77ea5d6a0f66084a9"}}},"metadata":{"abstract_en":"This report provides an updated scenario analysis to help parliamentarians gauge potential economic and fiscal implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent oil market developments.\nThis report incorporates announced federal budgetary measures up to and including 12 June 2020.","abstract_fr":"Le pr\u00e9sent rapport propose une mise \u00e0 jour de l\u2019analyse de sc\u00e9nario pour aider les parlementaires \u00e0 \u00e9valuer les possibles r\u00e9percussions \u00e9conomiques et financi\u00e8res de la pand\u00e9mie de COVID-19 et des d\u00e9veloppements r\u00e9cents sur le march\u00e9 du p\u00e9trole.\nCe rapport tient compte des mesures f\u00e9d\u00e9rales annonc\u00e9es jusqu\u2019au 12 juin 2020 inclusivement.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP2021009S,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Scholz, Tim and Behrend, Robert and Bergeron, \\\u0027{E}tienne and Devakos, Tessa and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Forsyth, Jamie and Giswold, Jill and Liberge-Simard, 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report provides an estimate of the additional carbon price that would be needed to achieve Canada\u2019s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions target in 2030 under the Paris Agreement, as well as an estimate of the corresponding impact on the Canadian economy.","abstract_fr":"Le pr\u00e9sent rapport fournit une estimation de la tarification suppl\u00e9mentaire du carbone qui serait n\u00e9cessaire pour atteindre la cible d\u2019\u00e9missions de gaz \u00e0 effet de serre (GES) du Canada en 2030 en vertu de l\u2019Accord de Paris, ainsi qu\u2019une estimation de son effet sur l\u2019\u00e9conomie canadienne.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP1920016,\n author={Bagnoli, Philip and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l},\n title={Closing the gap: carbon pricing for the Paris target (Revised June 20, 2019)},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2019,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP1920016,\n 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with the Parliamentary Budget Officer\u2019s legislated mandate, this report provides PBO\u2019s economic and fiscal outlook.","abstract_fr":"Conform\u00e9ment \u00e0 son mandat l\u00e9gislatif, le directeur parlementaire du budget pr\u00e9sente ici ses perspectives \u00e9conomiques et financi\u00e8res.","highlights":null},"bills":[],"bibtex":{"en":"@techreport{PBO-RP1920012,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Scholz, Tim and Behrend, Robert and Busby, Carleigh and Devakos, Tessa and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Srivatsan, Varun and Stanton, Jason and Wodrich, Nigel},\n title={Economic and Fiscal Outlook - April 2019},\n institution={The Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer},\n year=2019,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}","fr":"@techreport{DPB-RP1920012,\n author={Grinshpoon, Kristina and Scholz, Tim and Behrend, Robert and Busby, Carleigh and Devakos, Tessa and Elmarzougui, Eskandar and Liberge-Simard, Rapha\\\u0022{e}l and MacPhee, Sarah and Nahornick, Nora and Nicol, Caroline and Srivatsan, Varun and Stanton, Jason and Wodrich, Nigel},\n title={Perspectives \\\u0027{e}conomiques et financi\\`{e}res - Avril 2019},\n institution={Bureau du directeur parlementaire du budget},\n year=2019,\n \n address = \u0022Ottawa, ON\u0022\n}"}}